Did the 2018 Farm Bill Deschedule CBD?
In recent years, cannabis by-product cannabidiol (CBD) has earned great public acclaim for its purported health benefits, launching an industry that is expected to eclipse $1B in 2019. Laboratory research has verified claims about the health benefits of CBD, but its subsequent use in an FDA-approved medicine has opened the door for greater regulatory scrutiny.
Many cheered the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, which descheduled industrial hemp and its derivatives (including CBD). But that was just the start of a much more complicated regulatory story that continues to have a major impact on entrepreneurs, investors, and advocates and patients who rely on CBD.
CBD and the 2018 Farm Bill
When President Trump signed the 2018 Farm Bill into law one of the key changes affecting the cannabis industry was the separation of “hemp” and “marijuana.” Before the Farm Bill, any incarnation of the cannabis plant and its byproducts were lumped into a single category and considered a Schedule 1 drug. Key language in Section 1103 of the Farm Bill defines hemp as:
“the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of that plant, including the seeds thereof and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”
In short, the Farm Bill descheduled industrial hemp and its byproducts as long as it stayed under the threshold of less than 0.3 percent THC. CBD is derived from the cannabis plant, whether there are significant levels of THC or not. CBD industry advocates have interpreted the language “all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers” as descheduling CBD when industrial hemp is the source. And they are “mostly” correct in this interpretation. Unfortunately, there are other federal agencies in play.
CBD and the FDA
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) enacted the 2018 Farm Bill in their position overseeing laws related to the cultivation of industrial hemp. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees medicine and food additives. CBD has emerged as a "wonder drug" with a growing list of potential benefits and now appears as an additive in a wide range of consumer products. In addition, the FDA approved Epidiolex, the first CBD-derived drug, in 2018.
All of this has culminated in CBD being a priority of the FDA, so much so, that just a week after the Farm Bill was signed into law, the FDA issued a press release clarifying and asserting their regulatory control over all cannabis-derived compounds.
“We treat products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds as we do any other FDA-regulated products — meaning they’re subject to the same authorities and requirements as FDA-regulated products containing any other substance. This is true regardless of the source of the substance, including whether the substance is derived from a plant that is classified as hemp under the Agriculture Improvement Act.”
Concurrent with the Farm Bill and the press release regarding CBD, the FDA also issued three Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) notices for hemp by-products: hulled hemp seeds, hemp protein powder, and hemp seed oil. Clearly demonstrating that (some) hemp products have been descheduled and cleared for use by the FDA.
The FDA’s policy is different toward CBD for two key reasons. Firstly, CBD products are largely marketed with a wide variety of therapeutic claims. In their press release the FDA notes:
“The FDA requires a cannabis product (hemp-derived or otherwise) that is marketed with a claim of therapeutic benefit, or with any other disease claim, to be approved by the FDA for its intended use before it may be introduced into interstate commerce.”
Secondly, the FDA’s approval of CBD-based drug Epidiolex, put CBD and THC into the category of “active ingredients in FDA-approved drugs.” Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) it is “illegal to introduce drug ingredients like these into the food supply, or to market them as dietary supplements.”
In short, the FDA does not distinguish between CBD derived from hemp or “marijuana,” and until the agency approves CBD and establishes a regulatory framework, adding CBD to food and beverages is illegal.
Has the regulation of CBD slowed businesses?
While early CBD research has shown promise as a treatment for conditions like epilepsy and anxiety, as a consumer product it is unproven and has been largely unregulated until recently. In the absence of labeling standards and regulated dosage guidelines, consumers often have little understanding of what they are buying and its potential effects.
All of this uncertainty has earned greater regulatory attention for CBD. There have been reports of crackdowns on bakeries, restaurants and retailers selling CBD in California, New York, Maine and Ohio, just to name a few. This regulatory response has shocked and angered a number of hemp producers and CBD retailers who have invested millions into business ventures that they feel only supply the public with products that help manage health concerns.
Despite the confusing legality, the CBD industry appears to be moving full-steam ahead. In recent months, national retailers as diverse as Walgreens, DSW and Barney’s New York have announced plans (or have already begun) selling CBD products. Indicating the burgeoning CBD industry is well on the way to mainstream acceptance.
What is next for CBD?
In February, former FDA Commissioner Scott Pruitt testified before the House Appropriations Committee and said that the FDA is initiating a rule making procedure with the goal of creating “an appropriately efficient and predictable regulatory framework for regulating CBD products.” The FDA will launch the process with a public hearing on CBD scheduled for May 31, 2019.
Further complexity struck when Pruitt unexpectedly announced his resignation, which took effect in early April. Pruitt has been replaced by Dr. Ned Sharpless, the former director of the National Cancer Institute. To date, it is unknown whether Sharpless intends to take a progressive stance toward CBD.
While delays occur at the federal level, states are shifting into action. Maine recently passed an emergency law governing CBD. The bill aligns the definition of hemp in Maine’s laws with the definition used in the Farm Bill. Meaning, as long as CBD is derived from hemp sources it is to be considered a food product, rather than medicine, and is cleared for use in Maine.
Ultimately, until the FDA creates a regulatory framework for CBD, it will remain illegal to add it to any food or drink products.
Learn more about the FDA Public Hearing on CBD here
Provide a public comment for the FDA on CBD here